## alternative cosmology idea and some vivid scenarios

"What would happen if...?" has always been a staple of Science Fiction. What do you wonder about?

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tarantoga
Just Registered Posts: 1
Joined: Tue Feb 02, 2016 1:16 am

### alternative cosmology idea and some vivid scenarios

alternative cosmology - idea and some vivid scenarios
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First i apologize my english.

The basic idea is very simple, but strange indeed - instead of the expansion of the universe, all matter is contracting as a function of its proper time.

After trying to have any kind of discussion in this topic in some "other" forums, i gave up and thought that only people that could be interested on this topic are those who are interested of science fiction.

I here first do some boring theory that is a basis of the scenarios which i introduce later.
Then there is the long waited scenario section at the end.

Theory:
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The Robertson - walker metric, that describes the observed expansion of the universe:

ds² = (cdt)² - a(t) dr²

Is now a consequence of the contraction of the matter, instead of the expanding of the space. The space is not expansing at all as a remnant of Big Band or due to cosmological constant, but the gravity of the galaxies and dark matter have still influence to the metric of the space.

This contraction of matter is caused by hypothetical phenomenon called "Isotropic local space-time contraction", and every particle is subject to this phenomenon.

The description of the phenomenon is surprisingly simple, and can be described by three equations:

1. (dr'/dr0) = L(t)
2. (dt'/dt0) = L(t)
3. (E'/E0) = 1/ L(t)

I call it isotropic length contraction, that is associated with time contraction and energy expansion.

Why these equations?
All of these equations are needed to explain correctly following cosmological observations:
a) cosmological red shift
b) cosmological time dilation
c) angular size growth proportional to (1+z)
d) correct surface brightness - red shift relation F'/F = a * (1+z)^⁻4

The length contraction only wouldn't produce all these observations. For example three observed changes of cosmological photons:
1. increase in wavelength
2. decrease in frequency
3. decrease in energy
can be only explained if there are 3 simultaneous changes in the length unit, time unit and energy unit of the matter - and therefore changes in the measurements the observer does.

The function L(t) can be crudely estimated to be exponential: L(t) = exp[-Ht] ,where H is Hubble constant. This makes the described phenomenon extremely weak and the linear approximation for L is:

L(t) = (1 - Ht) ,where H = 2.20 * 10^⁻18 1/s = 6.93 * 10^⁻11 1/year ,where H is Hubble constant in units of 1/s and 1/year.

The key property of this so called "isotropic length contraction" is that when the L(t) is constant, the contracted area can satisfy the local principle of relativity. This basicly says that the local observer is not able to deduce by doing local measurements whether he has been contracted by some factor L unequal to 1 or not. The local observer measures all local laws of nature being normal. This causes also that we can't know has all matter in us contracted in the past or not.

Also, This property is the hit- thing, what makes the science fiction scenarios to become very appealing.

Now, with these four things, 3 equations and the principle of relativity, we are ready to derive the transformation equations for every possible physical quantity and nature constant.

In theoretical physics, there is a fact that you can define any kind of unit conversion by defining 3 main unit conversion equations. Now we use this fact to calculate transformation equations for the most common properties:

mass : m'/m = 1/L
velocity: v'/v = 1 and acceleration a'/a = 1/L
local force: F'/F = 1/L²
local momentum: p'/p = 1/L
local electric charge: Q'/Q = 1/L
local power: P'/P = 1/L²
Gravitation constant: G'/G = L²
Coulomb constant: k'/k = L²
velocity of light: c'/c = 1
density : d'/d = 1/L⁴

note that also gravitation constant and coulomb constant changes (as do also magnetic constant) in this phenomenon.

Predictions:

The contraction of the matter gives clearly different predictions than expanding space. There are two main phenomena, where this alternative hypothesis have influence on:

1) Matter that has significant time dilation will contract less relative to the matter that has no time dilation, therefore there must be differently transformed matter in the universe.

The magnitude of the phenomenon is L(t) = 1 + D * 6.93 * 10 ^⁻11 1/year , where D is time dilation factor.

For typical GPS- satellite the time contraction factor is of magnitude D = 10⁻^9 so it makes L(t) = 1 + 10^⁻19
(the clock goes faster than similar clock on the surface of earth)

Note that this transformation is permanent change in the properties of the matter, therefore for example the additional time contraction in the atom clock does not perish when the clock is brought back to the surface.

2) Contraction of matter will cause that in all weakly bound systems, such as solar system, there is additional velocity vector, that i call "distance expansion" that tend to increase all distances between celestial bodies, and other observable phenomenon is that the as all celestial bodies contract, there is additional velocity vector related to this contraction that tends also to increase distances between the surfaces of celestial bodies.

Examples of distance expansion in solar system:
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Distance expansion of the moon = 384000 km * 6.93 * 10^-11 1/year = 2.63 cm /year
(this is a velocity component pointing away from the earth)
Distance expansion of the earth = 1 AU * 6.93 * 10^-11 1/year = 10.4 m /year
(this is a velocity component pointing away from the sun)
Contraction of the sun = 1.5 * 10^6km * 6.93 * 10^-11 1/year = 10.4 cm /year

More exotic predictions, that are based on these two category, are:
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-The Black holes should appear to grow in size by rate (1 + 6.93* 10^⁻5 1/million years) since the event horizon has infinite time dilation. this is a net effect of two changes: the mass decreases by factor 1/L, but the gravitation constant increases by factor L^2 - relative to the contracting matter. Therefore the black holes appear to grow as if they have gained more mass by factor L
-The frequency of the pulsars should slow down by rate (1+ DH) where D is the time dilation factor of the neutron star, that is something near D= 0.7
-In the quasar jets that extends to large distances, there should be additional redshift (1 + RH/c) as a function of the distance R from the source
-In the mixed gas clouds in the galaxies, where is possible to have differently transformed matter in the same cloud, there should be exotic emission lines in radio or microwave area due to energy transition of electrons between differently transformed nuclei. The spectrum may be continuous due to that the transformation spectrum of the matter may be continuous. This may (or may not) be a candidate explanation for anomalous microwave radiation (AMR) in milky way.
-There should be exotic particles, so called transformed protons - in the cosmic rays

Now, the Science fiction scenarios!

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Scenario: a vessel that is contracted by factor L=1000
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Lets imagine that there is a method where a space vessel can be contracted by factor of 1000

The changed properties of the vessel:
-mass is 1000 times higher
-density is 1000 000 000 000 times higher
-The time rate of the computer is 1000 times faster
-There is 1000 times more energy in the fuel tank of the vessel

What would the pilot observe, if he were flying this vessel on the surface of the earth?
-the time rate of the ordinary humans is very tiring 1000 times slower.
-the temperature of the air is 0.3 K
-The density of the earth's crust is 1000 000 000 000 times smaller
-Sun has surface temperature of 5 K, and it will therefore radiate microwaves
-The earths gravitation pull is g= 0.009 m/s^2
-However earths gravitation constant is 1000 000 times higher, which makes the
escape velocity on the surface of earth exactly 8km/s

Scenario: Planet earth that has been contracted by factor 1000 000
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Lets imagine that some day in the future humans will contract the earth by factor 1000 000 to establish a super civilization.

The changed properties of the earth:
-The time runs 1000 000 times faster
-Earth's mass is 1000 000 times higher
-Earth's density is 1000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 times higher
-However the gravitation constant of the earth's is 1000 000 000 000 times weaker, which makes possible that
the earth wont collapse under its own gravity to a neutron star or black hole.
-If humans have not build a thermal shield above the atmosphere of the earth, earth would radiate gamma rays and lose
its high temperature, 300 000 000 K very rapidly into a space

Contracted humans on the surface of the earth would see the inverse changes in the solar system:
-Sun diameter is 1000 000 times higher
-Suns temperature is 1000 000 times smaller
-Suns gravitation constant is 1000 000 000 000 times higher
-Humans has to build a thermal shield above the atmosphere of the earth, otherwise earth will lose heat and cool down in matter of days or week into a snowball-earth.

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Lets imagine that space traveller will spend 1000 000 000 years in the close vicinity of some supermassive black hole. All matter in the universe will contract during this time by factor 1 - Ht = 1 - 6.93 * 10^-2.

That would mean that the space traveller will grow in size by factor 1 + Ht = 1.07 relative to the myriad of generations of humans in normal planets. Also all matter in him has transformed into exotic matter, that have all transformed properties the equations described above in the theory section. What would happen when this space traveller returns to earth.

1. To avoid Interactions between normal and transformed matter the space traveller may need to build a shield against the contracted matter in earth. The coulomb constant of traveller is higher than coulomb constant in the matter on earth.

2. His time rate will run permanently 1.07 times slower relative to the time rate of the earthlings.

3.Earthlings seem to have slightly more energy in the muscles than he has, they seem to be slightly heavier, their brain will work 1.07 times faster.

4. The temperature of earth's air is 321 K = 50 'C, so it is slightly hotter than the air in the travellers space vessel. Sun's surface temperature is 5350 K, it is also slightly hotter. Earth's surface gravity pull is about 11 m/s²

5. If there were methods to artificially create contractions or expansions, the only possible way to gain back the normality may be that the whole earth would have to move to the influence of the supermassive black hole.

Scenario: Exotic forms of matter compounds
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It may be possible to build stable matter from differently transformed protons, nuclei and electrons

example: Hydrogen -1000 is 1000 times contracted proton, that is 1000 times greater charge is balanced with 1000 normal electron cloud.

example: electron - 500 -multi positronium is 500 times contracted electron that is surrounded by 500 normal positrons.

Scenario: Fractal space-time and minus infinite entropy
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Since contraction factor may have any value from 0 to infinity, it also may have implication, that the spacetime
has to have fractal structure, and itself consist of contractions.

So if the space-time has fractal structure, then it is possible that it can have minus infinite entropy. The entropy may be increasing in the cosmos, but the "infinite minus entropy" of the space never run out.

One consequence of this might be, that in any point in space-time or space, when it is magnified large enough, you can actually find a perfect copy of the universe we are living in, and exact copy of ourselves - similarly as if the universe is large enough, there may be exact copy of ourselves somewhere there.

my time runs out now. thank you for interest!

Bmat
Super Moderator Posts: 5899
Joined: Tue Apr 05, 2005 5:31 pm
Location: East coast US

### Re: alternative cosmology idea and some vivid scenarios

This is an intriguing idea, and I can see it in a short story, perhaps.

I know I have read stories based on one part of your discussion that rang a bell with me- a civilization whose time went much fast than ours, and the problems with communicating with them.

As far as magnifying space-time and finding copies of our universe, it is certainly something to think about.